Cannabis used in Israelite worship?
There are a few sources I have used in my brief excursion into this topic again.
This is an academic site that states calamus refers to one of two plants, and offers academic citations for each possibility.
There was this on Google books, which on page 15 mentions that "hemp" has indeed been used to refer to Cannabis in Eastern Asia for millenia. There's no evidence, per its footnote, that it's strictly referring to Cannabis. I did find it interesting that Cannabis is part of the mulberry family!
Second, this links to this very important find. So cannabis residue can be traced to cultic rituals in the Kingdom of Judah in the 8th century BC. I think that the Wikipedia article, however slightly misrepresents how important the find is. No doubt, it's important to link the use of cannabis for ritual purposes, but what is the Arad temple? Wikipedia, in another article, offers a brief description: . What is clear from the caption of one of the images on the sidebar is that there are two altars, one (assumed to be) to YHWH and the other to Asherah. So one question in my mind is how synergistic is this ritual site? If there are already side-by-side altars, clearly there's not pure worship to YHWH being done, but worship alongside the worship of demons. How can there be certainty that the pagan worship, which we already know from the "Ethneogenic use of cannabis" wikipedia article, didn't use the cannabis and the YHWH worship did? It seems like a stretch to connect the worship to YHWH if there are already two altars and we know that existing pagan cultures used cannabis in their own rituals.